The R Manuals

Current Version: 2.3.1

The following manuals for R are downloadable as PDF files:

  • An Introduction to R is based on the former "Notes on R", gives an introduction to the language and how to use R for doing statistical analysis and graphics. [browse HTML]

  • A draft of The R language definition documents the language per se. That is, the objects that it works on, and the details of the expression evaluation process, which are useful to know when programming R functions. [browse HTML]

  • Writing R Extensions covers how to create your own packages, write R help files, and the foreign language (C, C++, Fortran, ...) interfaces. [browse HTML]

  • R Data Import/Export describes the import and export facilities available either in R itself or via packages which are available from CRAN. [browse HTML]

  • R Installation and Administration [browse HTML]

  • The R Reference Index contains all help files of the R standard and recommended packages in printable form.
Translations into other languages than English are available from the contributed documentation section.

The latex or texinfo sources of the latest version of these documents are contained in every R source distribution (in the subdirectory doc/manual of the extracted archive). Older versions of the manual can be found in the respective archives of the R sources . The HTML versions of the manuals are also part of most R installations (accessible using function help.start()).

Hardcopies of some of the manuals (for R version 1.9.1) are available from Network Theory Limited.